What is IP telephony and how does it work?
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What is IP Telephony?
What is an IP address?
Mobile IP protocol essence?
How to find the Android IP?
IP vs Traditional Telephony
Have you heard of IP telephony? Our is about ip telephony, what is it? For dummies and beginners in the field of cloud communications, we will tell you how modern telephony works, what is needed to connect it and what advantages it has.
What is IP Telephony?
IP telephony is a modern and flexible service that solves a large number of business tasks. Connect IP telephony and obtain a corporate telephone network, taking into account all your requirements.
IP telephony (also pronounced IP telephony) over the SIP protocol is made possible by VoIP, a digital telephony technology for transmitting voice data over networks. Speech during this transmission is first converted into compressed audio data packets and then decoded back into speech.
For offices, the Session Initiation Protocol is used, which performs telephony through an Internet access channel and organizes work using Internet traffic. At the same time, you can use voip numbers in conjunction with special SIP devices from computers, cell phones, and even from classic phones.
How does IP telephony work?We already know what IP telephony is, now let's see how it works. The abbreviation IP (Internet Protocol) stands for Internet Protocol. Based on it, computers and other devices recognize each other and exchange voice messages accurately.
What happens directly during the call? At this point, the voice is transformed and converted into a digital signal. It enters the device and is transmitted to another subscriber. The signal is recognized by another device, the transmission changes again and changes again. As a result, the subscriber picks up the phone and listens to his usual speech.
How to connect IP telephony? So, the Internet and understanding, what is IP telephony, is. What else is needed to initiate calls? To manage calls and receive an unlimited number of them, it is important to connect a switchboard in the cloud and a multi-channel virtual number.
The connection and configuration of these services is done within 1 business day by the IP telephony provider. All work is carried out remotely (via the Internet and by phone). Also, don't forget to connect a phone or any other device that allows you to make and receive calls.
1.- Dedicated IP phone. This is a regular phone, which requires Internet access. To do this, you need to connect the cable directly to the phone or connect it to a computer, Wi-Fi router, or IP gateway.
2.- Telephone with IP gateway. If the company uses existing telephones for calls, then each of them must be connected to the IP gateway. It converts the voice signal to digital and the normal phone works as an IP phone.
3.- PC or smartphone with softphone. To make calls from mobile phones, laptops or PC, all you need to do is connect your softphone. You can install it on a PC with Windows operating system, on a mobile device, on Android or iOS.
IP telephony equipment is chosen by company employees. All types of equipment can be used at the same time. It is important to consider that each phone and computer needs its own dedicated line.
IP telephony benefits?Today we discuss the advantages of using modern telephony: a favorable price, a wide range of services, rapid scalability, the ability to integrate and the mobility of employees.
1.- IP telephony price.-To connect IP telephony to the office or IP telephony to the home, you do not need buy special equipment, call the master. It is enough to pay a subscription fee for PBX once a month, from 1090 rubles. The monthly payment depends on the number of users and those services that are additionally connected.
2.- Functionality of IP telephony.- The times of IP telephony are many capacities greater than the functions of some PBX analog and digital. Thus, for example, in a standard Telfin switchboard, more than 100 services are already provided: voice greeting, queue and call forwarding, recording and storage of telephone conversations, voice mail, etc.
3.- Scalability of IP telephony.- IP telephony allows you to scale the existing corporate telephone network. The number of lines can be changed in a matter of minutes both in the direction of their increase and decrease. The minimum number of users is 3 people.
4.- IP telephony integration.- The virtual PBX, a key IP telephony service, can be combined with any CRM system and other business applications: 1C, MS Office, Bitrix24, amoCRM, MoiSklad, Megaplan, SugarCRM, Simpla CMS, U-ON Travel, Klass365, MyDocuments- tourism and others.
5.- IP telephony mobility.- A corporate telephone network based on IP telephony allows you to combine not only the city, but also the mobile numbers of the employees. Thanks to the FMC service and call forwarding, simply use extension numbers to communicate with administrators while the switchboard records all calls.
What is an IP address?
In essence, an IP address is an identifier that allows you to transfer information between devices on a network: it contains information about the location of the device and ensures its availability for communication. IP addresses allow you to distinguish between computers, routers, and websites on the Internet and are an essential component of how the Internet works.
An IP address is a string of numbers separated by dots. IP addresses are a set of four numbers, such as 18.104.22.168. Each number in this set is in the range 0 to 255. Therefore, the full range of IP addressing is addresses 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255.
IP addresses are not random. They are mathematically calculated and distributed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), a division of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). ICANN is a non-profit organization founded in the United States in 1998 to keep the Internet safe and accessible to all users. Whenever someone registers a domain on the Internet, use a domain name registrar that pays a small fee to ICANN to register the domain.
How do IP addresses work?Understanding how IP addresses work will help you figure out why a given device isn't connecting as expected and troubleshoot your network.
The Internet Protocol works like any other language: it transmits information using established rules. Devices discover and communicate with other connected devices using this protocol. Simply put, all computers, wherever they are, can communicate with each other.
The use of IP addresses often goes unnoticed.
The process works like this:
1.- The device does not connect directly to the Internet: first it connects to a network that is connected to the Internet and then in turn, the network provides the device with access to the Internet.
2.- If you are at home, most likely this sea of red is from your ISP. In the office, this will be your company network.
3.- Your ISP assigns the IP address to the device.
4.- Your Internet activity goes through your ISP and he redirects you to the responses to the requests using your address IP. Since the ISP provides access to the Internet, its role is to assign an IP address to your device.
5.- However, your IP address can change, for example, when you turn your modem or router on or off. You can also contact your ISP to change the IP address.
6.- If you are away from home, for example, on a trip, and take your device with you, the IP address of the home is not assigned to the device. This is because the device uses a different network (Hotel/Airport/Cafe Wi-Fi) to access the Internet and a different temporary IP address supported by the ISP at the Hotel, Airport or Cafe.
Types of IP addresses?There are different categories of IP addresses, and there are different types within each category.
1.-Client IP addressesEvery person or company with an Internet service plan has two types of IP addresses: private and public. The terms private and public refer to the location of the network: the private IP address is used inside the network, while the public IP address is used outside the network.
2.- Private IP addressesEvery device that connects to your Internet network has a private IP address. These can be computers, smartphones, tablets, and any Bluetooth-enabled devices such as speakers, printers, smart TVs. With the development of the Internet of Things, the number of private IP addresses in the home network is also growing. The router needs to identify each of these devices, and many devices also need to identify each other. Therefore, the router generates private IP addresses, which are unique identifiers for each device and can distinguish them on the network.
3.- Public IP addressesThe public IP address is the main address associated with the entire network. Each connected has its own IP address, but they are also included in the IP address of the main network. As described above, the ISP provides the public IP address to the router. ISPs typically have a large pool of IP addresses that they assign to customers. The public IP address is the address that devices outside the Internet will use to recognize that network.
There are two types of public IP addresses: dynamic and static.
3.1.- Dynamic IP addressesDynamic IP addresses change automatically and periodically. ISPs buy a large number of IP addresses and automatically assign them to their customers. Periodically change the assigned IP addresses and put the old IP addresses back into the pool for use by other clients. The rationale for this approach is to save the provider money. Automating the regular change of IP addresses allows them to do nothing to restore the customer's IP address, for example if they move. There are also security benefits, as changing the IP address makes it more difficult for attackers to hack into the network interface.
3.2.- Static IP addressesUnlike dynamic IP addresses, static IP addresses will remain unchanged. Once the network assigns an IP address, it will remain unchanged. Most people and organizations don't need static IP addresses, but for organizations planning to host their own servers, having a static IP address is essential. This is because a static IP address ensures that websites and email addresses linked to it will have permanent IP addresses. This is very important if you want other devices to be able to find them on the Internet.
4.- Two types of website IP addressesFor website owners using a web hosting package (which is the case for most websites) instead of their own server, there are two types of website IP addresses: shared and dedicated.
4.1.- Shared IP addressesWebsites using shared hosting plans from web hosting providers are usually one of many websites hosted on the same server. They are usually websites of individuals or small and medium amounts of companies, with a limitation of traffic, number of pages, etc. These websites have shared IP addresses.
4.2.- Dedicated IP addressesSome web hosting plans have the option to purchase a dedicated IP address (or addresses). This can make it easier to obtain an SSL certificate and allows you to use your own FTP (File Transfer Protocol) server. It also makes it easy to share and transfer files within an organization and allows anonymous FTP access. A dedicated IP address also allows you to access a website using only the IP address and without the domain name. This is useful if you want to create and test it before registering a domain.
How do you search for IP addresses?Each user who accesses the Internet through a mobile operator's network receives an IPv4 address in the form XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX IPv4 addresses In the WORLD there are only 4,500 million IPv4 addresses, all distributed among organizations in 2011. Mobile operators have only a few thousand unique IPv4 addresses (around 4,000-8,000 per operator), while operators have millions of users (MTS, around 77 million subscribers, Megafon, around 74 million subscribers, Beeline, about 58 million subscribers, Tele2, about 38 million subscribers as of 2016)
The easiest way to find out the router's public IP address is to Google "What is my IP address?" (What is my IP address?). The answer will appear in Google at the top of the page.
Other websites show the same information: they see the public IP address because when they visit the site, the router makes a request and thus reveals the information. Sites like WhatIsMyIP.com and IPLocation show the name and city of the ISP.
As a rule, only the approximate location of the provider can be found in this way, and not the actual location of the device. If you use this method, you must also log out of the VPN. To find out the actual location address of the device from a public IP address, you usually need to provide a search warrant to your ISP.
Find out the private IP address :
1.- Find out your local IP address using the command line. To call the command line, use the Win + R key combination and in the window that opens, enter the commandcmd. Once the command prompt has started, enter the command IPCONFIG. In the information displayed, you can see your local IP address.
2.- To know your local IP address, click on the network connection icon in the notification panel. After that, follow the path: Network and Sharing Center - Local Area Connection - Details. In this window, you can see your internal IP address next to the line "IPv4 address".
1.- Go to System Preferences.
2.- Select a network and the required information is displayed.
iPhone and Android platforms:
1.- Go to configuration.
2.- Select Wi-Fi and click the "i" icon in the circle next to the name of the network you is using. The IP address is displayed in the DHCP tab.
Note.- To check the IP addresses of other devices on the network, go to your router. How you access your router depends on the brand of router and the software you are using. Access typically requires being able to enter the router's gateway IP address into a web browser while on the same network. From there, you need to go to the "Connected Devices" element, which displays a list of all devices currently or recently connected to the network, including their IP addresses.
Essence of the Mobile IP protocol?
Essentially, Mobile IP allows the user to move across different IP subnets and access channels while maintaining an uninterrupted connection. To understand the principles of mobile IP, you can use the analogy with the postal service. The letter is sealed in an envelope and sent to the addressee (IP header).
It arrives at the local post office and is delivered to the address. When the recipient leaves, he contacts the post office (origin agent - Origin Agent) with a request to forward correspondence to his new postal address - the transfer address (Care-of Address - CoA).
After that, letters arriving on behalf of this recipient at the local post office are redirected (tunneled) to a new address (CoA). The letter arrives at the post office. that serves the recipient's new location (Foreign Agent) and is sent to his new address (CoA). Mail delivery in this way is done without the involvement of the actual sender of the letter (Corresponding Node - Corresponding Node).
Mobile IP is a dynamic routable protocolThe main (root) mobile IP protocol is not designed to manage and assign IP addresses. There are extensions available to manage IP addresses to mobile nodes, but this is not the main function of the protocol. Like Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), Mobile IP is not an address management protocol because it cannot assign addresses. While some mobile IP implementations resemble applications with a central server and clients at the edge, many others resemble a classic routed infrastructure.
Some experts believe that Mobile IP is not a routable protocol because it is not capable of creating a complete network topology. However, this is not a required feature of a routed protocol. To confirm that Mobile IP is a dynamic routable protocol, let's look at its features. The essence of a dynamic routable protocol is that it transforms the routing table when the route changes, but it does not fundamentally change the way the routing is performed. It detects changes in the network topology and adapts to them by choosing the best available route and updating the routing tables accordingly. The best available path is determined by the protocol being used and can vary depending on the goals of the protocol. For example, some protocols are designed to improve network scalability, and others for faster convergence. These tasks influence the selection of the best available path. Primarily Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are dynamic routable protocols, but each uses different methods of selecting the best route.
Mobile IPs announce their route changesMobile IP is designed to provide scalable host routing for clients in a mobile (typically wireless) environment. A mobile node may have one or more channels connecting it to the network, and each channel may have an associated scorecard. Using these metrics and link availability data, the mobile node informs the network by updating the best route paths it can reach, as shown in Figure 1. Because this route selection method is unlike any other, we suggest calling it the smart edge method.
The idea of edge routing may seem ill-conceived, but it works well in mobile environments for two reasons. First, in a wireless network, mobile nodes quickly connect and disconnect, making them difficult to track. Imagine using a standard Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) in an environment where there are hundreds of neighbors on the same link and hundreds of network topology changes every second. Transferring most tasks to a mobile node allows you to scale the network more efficiently. Second, since the speed and latency of wireless networks are often quite different from a fixed network, choose the best route based on which access channel is most efficient.
Dynamic tunnels eliminate host-based routingUnlike routable protocols, Mobile IP creates its own circuits; however, they are logical, not physical. These channels are known as tunnels. Tunneling typically connects two similar networks through a different network. For example, tunneling can be used to send a protocol such as AppleTalk over a network that is not capable of AppleTalk routing.
Since many protocols are now being superseded by Internet protocols, tunneling is increasingly used to connect similar domains through a different domain. For example, a company could use tunnels to connect remote private networks across the Internet. This allows traffic with private addresses to be routed through the public network
With mobile IP, mobile nodes maintain fixed IP addresses as they move through the network. Providing this with traditional routing protocols required each mobile node to use host-assisted routing. Each movement of the mobile node required a route update on the host and a routing protocol transformation. This may work for a small number of mobile nodes with low mobility, but as the frequency of route updates increases, the protocols traditional routing can fail.
Instead, Mobile IP host routes to no more than two devices, the inside agent and possibly the outside agent assigns, and uses tunnels to transport the traffic through the network. This eliminates the need to send the host's route across the network each time the mobile node moves. Essentially, Mobile IP uses tunnels to create an overlapping routing domain that isolatesfrequent route changes from host of existing routing protocols.
Characteristics of Mobile IP?
Mobile IP (or MIP ) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining a permanent IP address. Mobile IP for IPv4 is described in IETF RFC 5944 and extensions are defined in IETF RFC 4721. Mobile IPv6 , the IP mobility implementation for the next generation of the Internet Protocol, IPv6 , is described in RFC 6275.
Typically, a system using the Mobile IP protocol consists of three components: a home agent, a mobile node, and a foreign agent. In most cases, separate devices (routers) are used for each function, or sometimes a single device combines an inside agent and a outside agent. Many companies offer solutions to build a mobile IP network infrastructure. Among them is such a well-known manufacturer of network equipment as Cisco Systems, which produces RFC 2002-compliant equipment.
Mobile IP enables location-independent routing of IP datagrams on the Internet. Each mobile node is identified by its home address regardless of its current location on the Internet. While away from its home network, a mobile node associates itself with a care-of address that identifies its current location, and its home address is associated with the local endpoint of a tunnel to its home agent. Mobile IP specifies how a mobile node registers with its home agent and how the home agent routes datagrams to the mobile node through the tunnel.
Other important concepts in the mobile IP protocol are the home network, home addresses, and forwarding addresses (CoAs)..
Mobile IP NodeA mobile node can be any IP device, from a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a laptop to a router. The mobile node must detect logical movement and establish its current location. A logical move is not only a change in the access device, but also changes in the subnetwork associated with the access channel. A mobile node can logically move and associate with a new access device if the device it was associated with fails.
comments Although Mobile IP is a Layer 3 protocol, the line between Layer 2 and Layer 3 is often blurred. As we will see in the discussion of motion detection and circuit switching, Mobile IP cannot operate effectively without network communication. layer 2.
Home network and home address"Home" is an important concept in mobile IP because Internet routing is based on the home IP address,
comments IP routing scales efficiently because large blocks of IP addresses can be grouped based on network prefix. IP networks are divided into subnets. All hosts on a subnet share a common network prefix. The set of bits preceding the host address determines the network prefix. All hosts on a subnet share the same network prefix. Traffic travels through the network following the route with the longest prefix.
The home address is assigned outside of the home network that is connected to the home agent. The home address is assigned statically or dynamically during the Mobile IP registration process. The concept of "home" in the Mobile IP protocol means a point of reference. The home network is the network with the longest prefix advertised in the usual routing protocols. It is used to avoid advertising host routes for each mobile node in the IGP routing protocol, which does not provide network scaling.
When the mobile node is connected to its home network, mobile IP is not needed because the traffic is sent to the mobile node using normal IP routing. When a mobile node moves from its home network and joins a new network, this new network/domain is called a foreign domain or guest domain.
What is the local agent?The home agent is a router capable of handling called mobile IP route updates (a registration process) and forwarding traffic to the mobile node through dynamically created tunnels. If the inside agent provides forwarding, it routes traffic through the tunnel using the host's route. If the home network is a physical network and the home agent is not forwarding, then it will not use Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to receive all traffic destined for the mobile node and then forward it through the tunnel. Note that the home agent and the mobile node must have secure communications when using the mobile IP shared protocol.
What is Transfer Address?When a mobile node enters a foreign network, it generates one or more care-of addresses (CoAs). The mobile node informs the home agent of this CoA during the mobile IP registration process. The home agent's traffic is then passed to the CoA, which determines the logical location of the mobile node in the foreign domain. The care-of address can be of two types:
1.- A collocated help address.
2.- The address for the transfer of a foreign agent.
Joint custody address
Transfer address with agentsIn the case of using an address to transfer a foreign agent, many nodes share a common CoA. Foreign agent care addresses are one or more interface IP addresses advertised by the foreign agent, which will be discussed in the next section.
Work external agent IPA foreign agent is a router connected to an access link that can terminate the tunnel on behalf of the mobile node. A foreign agent may advertise one or more of its IP addresses as a care-of-care (CoA) address. The mobile node registers with its home agent through the foreign agent.
The foreign agent stores the route of the access channel to which the mobile node is connected. Traffic for the mobile node is funneled from the home agent to the foreign agent. After the foreign agent removes the encapsulated header, it delivers the traffic to the mobile node. The foreign agent must be directly connected to the access channel of the mobile node the traffic can only be delivered to because through MAC layer addressing. If a foreign agent were to direct the traffic,
Correspondent node IP jobThe corresponding node is not a Mobile IP component, but is always mentioned when studying traffic. A correspondent node is a peer node of a mobile node in an IP communication, such as another mobile node or a fixed node. If the mobile node was using a web browser, then the corresponding node would be a web server.
How to find the Android IP?
What does internal address mean? Also called intranet or local, it belongs to a special range that is not used on the network. These addresses are required for use on local networks.
What does external IP address mean? And this is already a unique network address of a node in a computer network built using the IP protocol, and in this case, global uniqueness of the address is required.
How to find out the internal IP?1.- First, you connect to the Internet. Open configuration.
2.- Next, look for the section "About the device", " About phone", "About tablet", or "About phone", as in our example. As a general rule, this section is located at the bottom of the menu.
3.- Now click on the "State" element, it can also be called "General information".
4.- Here look for the line "IP address" and see the internal IP address.
How to find out the external IP?The easiest way to do this is to use the Internet.
1.- Start your browser.
2.- Open Google, write my IP address or my IP and click on "Search ".
3.- Ready, at the end of the search you will see your current external (public) IP address.
How to find out the IP with APPs?You can download the IP Tools app. Instantly install, download, launch and view all information about your connection, including external and internal IP. very comfortably.
The application combines the most popular network utilities normally found on your desktop PC. The tools will help you easily troubleshoot a network problem or optimize your network connection when you are hundreds of miles away.
Download IP Tools for Android
Threats to IP security?Cybercriminals can use various methods to obtain an IP address. The two most common methods are social engineering and online bullying.
1.- Through social engineeringAttackers can use social engineering to trick you into revealing your IP address. For example, they might find you on Skype or a similar instant messaging app that uses IP addresses to communicate. If you're chatting with strangers on these apps, it's important to know that they can see your IP address. Attackers can use the Skype Resolver tool to determine the IP address of the username.
2.- Through internet stalkingAttackers can track your IP address simply by observing your online activity. Anything online can reveal your IP address, from playing video games to commenting on websites and forums.
Once they can get your IP address, attackers go to an IP tracking website like whatismyipaddress.com, type it in, and get an estimate of your location. They can then use other publicly available data to verify if the IP address is associated with you. They can also use LinkedIn, Facebook and other social networks to find out where you live and then check if it matches the received IP address information.
If a Facebook stalker uses a spyware phishing attack against people using your name, they will be able to verify your identity from your system's IP address.
If cybercriminals know your IP address, they will attack you or even impersonate you. It is important to be aware of these risks and know how to deal with them. These risks include:
2.1.-Download from your IP addressAttackers are known to use hacked IP addresses to download illegal content and other materials, and by doing so, they want to avoid tracking such downloads. For example, using your IP address identifier, attackers can download pirated movies, music and videos, which is a violation of the provider's terms of service and, much more seriously, content related to terrorism or child pornography. This may mean that, through someone else's fault, you may attract the attention of law enforcement.
2.2.- IP location trackingIf attackers know your IP address, they can use geolocation technology to determine your region, city, and country. You just need to dig around a bit on social media to identify your home. They can then stage a robbery when they find out you're not home.
2.3.- Direct attack on your networkAttackers can target your network directly with various types of attacks. One of the most popular is a DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack. In this type of cyber attack, attackers use previously infected machines to generate a large number of requests to the target system or server. This puts too much load on the servers and causes the services to go down. In fact, the Internet is off. Such an attack typically targets gaming companies and services, but can also be used against individuals, although this is much less common. Online gamers are at particularly high risk because their screen is visible during streaming (and can be find an IP address in it).
2.4.-For hacking devicesPorts and an IP address are used to connect to the Internet. There are thousands of ports for each IP address, and an attacker who knows your IP address can check them and try to set a connection. For example, it can take over your phone and steal your information. If an attacker gains access to your device, they can install malware on it.
IP Telephony vs Traditional TelephonyImprovements of IP telephony compared to traditional telephony
1.- IP.- No expensive special equipment required
1.- TT.- Additional equipment required: PBX + router + cables
2.- IP.- Easily scale up and down the number of lines
2.- TT.- To increase the number of lines, you must buy expansion modules or a new PBX. Line reduction is not provided.
3.- IP.- The configuration does not require more than 1 day, the work is done remotely through the Internet and at no additional charge
3.- TT.- The connection and configuration of the equipment may take up to 7 business days, in any case, the work is paid
4.- IP.- More than 90 basic functions
4.- TT.- No more than 30 basic functions
5.- IP.- You can receive and make calls anywhere in the world
5.- TT.- You can only receive and make calls in the office
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What is IP Telephony and how does it work?
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What is IP telephony and how does it work? .-
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