What are LTE networks and how does it work?
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What are LTE networks like?
?How to implement LTE?
LTE communication on mobile?
What are LTE cellular networks?
Cellular networks of the GSM standard in their structure were not originally intended for mobile Internet. Consequently, today, cellular operators are forced to invest large amounts of money in upgrading their networks to 3G (UMTS) and now 4G (LTE) to meet the needs of the population. Of course, the cellular companies generously lend these investments out of our pockets, but their job isn't very easy either. Now, when the introduction of third-generation networks in Russia has not yet been completed, operators have already started work on next-generation networks: 4G or LTE.
The LTE standard is considered below as an evolution of GPRS, UMTS. The change mainly affects the core of the network. The developers made it part of the third generation, however, the overlay led to the introduction of the 3G+ concept. Marketers began heralding the "fourth" generation of cellular communications. The innovation required a change in the frequency plan, many countries were not prepared to provide mobile phones with the required ranges.
Initially, the ITU-R viewpoint recognized an LTE as the fourth generation. However, subsequent steps forced the original performance to be cancelled. Therefore, marketers alone cannot be blamed for the confusion. More specifically, organizations will need to introduce the qualifying term "true 4G" to synchronize the published specifications with the new WiMAX 2, LTE-A .
The term LTE itself stands for Long Term Evolution and converted to Russian means "long term evolution". For a long time, the WiMAX standard laid claim to the role of 4G communication, but it was subsequently relegated to the background as a less popular option for fast wireless Internet. LTE is the next generation of mobile communications after 3G and operates on the basis of IP technologies. The main difference between LTE and its predecessors is the high data transfer rate. In theory, it is up to 326.4 Mbps to receive and 172.8 Mbps to transmit information. In turn, the international standard indicates the figures of 173 and 58 Mbps, respectively. This fourth generation communication standard was developed and advanced by the 3GPP International Association.
LTE operating principleThe next generation network provides the ability to connect at speeds of up to 100 Mbps (theoretical maximum speed). It's actually an order of magnitude lower, anyway, the technology is significantly ahead of the previous standard. It is based on MIMO packet data transmission and OFDM coding system. Due to the distribution of the transmitting antennas, the dependency on correlation is completely eliminated. In different countries, communication operates on different bands. Even different telecom operators within a country often use different frequency bands.
1.- Download - 300 Mbps.
2.- Load - 75 Mbps.
2.- The QoS package reduced access latency to 5 ms. The technology provides targeted mail and broadcast services. In parallel, channel doubling frequency and time methods are used. The increased capacity reduces the cost of providing services (four times covered by HSPA). TeliaSonera generated a bandwidth of 10 MHz (the maximum specified by the standard is 20 MHz), using the "single input - single output" data transmission method.
Physical layer velocities
1.- Download - 50 Mbps.
2.- Load - 25 Mbps.
3.- LTE-TDD time division.- The full name of the standard version is LTE-TDD. The result of the joint work of Huawei, Datang Telecom, ZTE, China Mobile, Nokia, Samsung, Qualcomm, ST-Ericsson. A
Temporal splitting provides upload and download threads with a single frequency. It becomes possible to flexibly adjust the address according to the needs of the subscriber. The second feature is the use of ranges other than those used by frequency division: 1850..3800 MHz. The range of services is cheaper, carries less traffic. The partial mutual connection with WiMAX makes it possible to update across networks.
Frequency, time division technologies use the same 90% core. The result is the cross-exploitation of both options by one operator's networks. Companies have already started to produce combined models (Samsung, Qualcomm), combining both innovative branches in the phone.
Paired frequencies are used. What follows is the same as above.
4.- Direct LTE .- A protocol to transfer information between devices at a distance of approximately 500 m. First introduced by Qualcomm. With the support of 3GPP, the firm standardized the technology. The idea quickly outgrew Wi-Fi, Bluetooth capabilities.
5.- OFDM coding system.- OFDM encoding stands for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and in Russian means orthogonal frequency division of channels with multiplexing. This is a digital modulation scheme that uses a large number of probably spaced orthogonal subcarriers. All subcarriers are modeled with a standard modulation scheme such as QAM at a low symbol rate respecting the overall data rate as in simple single carrier modulation schemes on the same bandwidth.
In fact, OFDM signals are generated due to the application of "Fast Fourier Transform". This technology describes the direction of the signal from the base station (BS) to your mobile phone. As for the reverse signal path, ie. From the handset to the base station, technical developers had to abandon the OFDM system and use another technology called SC-FDMA.
In decryption it is read as single carrier FDMA and in translation it means single carrier multiplexing. Its meaning is that by adding a large number of orthogonal subcarriers, a signal with a large crest factor (the ratio of the signal's amplitude to its RMS value) is formed. In order for such a signal to be transmitted without interference, a high-quality and rather expensive line transmitter is required. It was this device that created some difficulties in obtaining a license in Russia for LTE networks. And yet, as often happens in our country, despLTE the artificially created difficulties, the LTE standard as a promising direction in the development of cellular networks. However, when bidding for the distribution of 2.3 - 2.4 GHz often in 40 regions, only OFDMA technology is deferred per radio access, which directly excludes LTE, because. in the latter case, in addition to OFDMA, SC-FDMA is also needed.
6.- 4G LTE alternatives.- 4G LTE networks will dominate for a long time, as operators are actively developing them.
In many cases, 4G Internet is not only an alternative to the cable connection, but also the only option without an alternative, even economically viable. Remote objects, the laying of cables for which is associated with certain difficulties or risks, and sometimes it is completely impossible, must also be connected to the Internet. It is often possible to connect to the 4G Internet even where there is no coverage of LTE networks. For this, special 4G antennas are used that capture and amplify the 4G LTE signal. To choose the right antenna, you need to know which carrier network you need to pick up, at what frequency it operates, and also in which duplex mode (FDD or TDD). Our experts will determine the type of signal, measure its parameters.
7.- What is FDD LTE technology? .- Sometimes you may see the technology name with additional meanings, for example LTE FDD. This value is not displayed on an LTE phone. But it often appears in the description. It is a way of encoding data streams. This is one of the most common standards, which is most often used in the CIS countries. It is capable of being active at 1800, 800, 2600 MHz. These are the most optimal ways to provide devices with a signal in large radius (up to 7 km). Many countries are adopting frequencies below 800 MHz for distribution to analog receivers. For example, television.
Another feature of LTE technology is that it only provides data transfer on all IP. And conversations on mobile devices are arranged in GSM. Therefore, operators have to rebuild their networks in every possible way so that users do not have difficulties when making calls.
There are several approaches to this:
1.- With optional VoLTE technology. Phone conversations are transmitted as normal data on LTE. That is, users speak as if using a messenger, for example, Skype. This method has many advantages over the same way of talking in GSM.
2.- SVLTE is a hybrid type of voice data transport that uses the standard method and LTE data.
3.- CSFB: the method is based on the fact that both networks are used separately. For communication - GSM, for Internet - LTE. This neighborhood of technologies is used by most operators today, due to the simplicity of the organization. In the near future, it is likely that one of the most reliable and simple technologies will be used and there will be no distinctions due to the variety of standards.
How are LTE networks implemented?
The measure is designed to simplify the transfer of the technical basis of the third generation of mobile communications. December 2008 presented the final version of the standard. In parallel, the creators of Yota decided to cover the territory of Russia, but chose WiMAX. The first Russian LTE tower was launched on August 30, 2010. Dreams and Norwegians were faster. On December 14, 2009, TeliaSonera equipped Oslo and Stockholm with Internet access via a USB modem. North America was the last to launch (September 21, 2010) and Samsung SCH-r900 phones were distributed to subscribers.
The launch of the Galaxy began on February 10, 2011. On March 17, the smart went on sale. On July 7, Canadian Internet provider Rogers Wireless released a trial version, required modems to the audience. It then started selling Samsung phones, HTS. The first commercial success encouraged developers to further develop the standard:
1.- LTE-A (March 2011).
2.- LTE-A Pro (2015).
LTE Time Division .- The above referred to LTE-FDD technology using channel frequency division. The early success of DSP networks forces the Asian region to look for alternative routes. Two LTE technologies have evolved in parallel.
The time division of the joint effort
2.- Datang Telecom.
This explains the divergence of the spectra: the producers used the local "whLTE" points of the TV transmission plan. Later Intel, Ericsson and Nokia joined. The newcomers were engaged in the development of base stations, which increased the capacity by 80%, the coverage of the territory - 40%. Qualcomm introduced the first chip to combine both technologies, supplementing the chip with support for older formats (HSPA, EV-DO). Field tests began in 2010, reaching 80 Mbps down, 20 Mbps up.
The positive results have sparked a general interest in the novelty. The main reason is the low cost of implementation compared to the frequency division kernel. 26 global operators have started testing. In March 2013, the number of commercial LTE-TDD networks reached 14 (mainly China, South Korea), LTE-FDD - 142.
LTE communication on mobile?
Currently, most smartphones in the world come with support for LTE-Advanced, and not only LTE (or 4G LTE, signed for purely marketing purposes). To verify this, you need to study the communication standards supported by the phone. This is usually indicated in the specifications of the smartphone. If LTE-A appears among the standards, then this will be evidence that the mobile device can really work on 4G networks.
Benefits of LTE phones and tabletsWhat are the benefits for users of the introduction of new communication standards?
LTE on the phone:
1.- Watch videos in high quality without delay; use of video communications for calls and video conferences.
2.- Effective use as a router to distribute WiFi.
Increasing the speed of data transfer contributes to the expansion of services and reduces their cost.
3G and 4G communication differencesLet's see what differences 3G network technology has with 4G:
1.- Wider distribution.
2.- Integration with E-Ultra is available.
3.- Ability to use VoIP.
4.- Increased data transfer rate hundreds of times.
5.- Data transmission occurs completely in packets (the packets and the channels were previously transmitted).
6.- Stable connection even when the device is moved.
Also note what distinguishes LTE in a smartphone from 4G. These are networks of the same generation, but still cannot be called the same:
1.- Reduced data loading speed.
2.- Low bandwidth: up to 150 Mb / s. compared to 1Gb/s. in 4G.
3.- The reception speed is lower.
Differences between 4G and LTE communication
To push the boundaries of familiar technologies, including 3G, specialists from Hewlett-Packard and NTT DoCoMo (and also Ericsson and AT&T together with Nortel Networks) started in 2000, but only in 2008 the International Telecommunications Union (ITU- A) formed requirements for the fourth generation standards, dividing the mobile Internet into "Before" and "After".
The advantages of 4G are:
1.- 4G provides speeds many times higher than similar third-generation solutions (maximum speed: 42-63 Mbps vs. 1Gbps). Other: Offers a smaller response, saving in situations where it is important to act quickly and with fewer losses.
2.- The difference in implementation is that 4G is based on the transmission of data packets, while 3G is based on in circuit switching.
3.- Support for VoIP technology and integration with E-Ultra.
The signal is many times more stable even when you change geographical location.
DespLTE the tangible advantages, it is important to remember the disadvantages. A new round of development of wireless mobile communications technologies implies a change in network equipment and additional maintenance costs. Due to incompatibility of data transfer methods, higher maximum bit rate and changed frequencies, carriers and providers have to invest more in hardware.
But, as the dynamics of 4th generation distribution suggest, a sharp break with 3G is not expected anytime soon. Many countries remain interested in exploiting intermediate technological solutions and are in no hurry to invest in the next discoveries. That is why it is difficult to determine in advance which is better: subscribers are interested in a rapid and widespread transition to 4G or LTE, but operators and investors would never reject even 2G.
Enable and disable LTE1.- LTE compatibility depends on several factors:
2.- Compliance of the device with the declared parameters.
3.- Communication support by the operator (availability of the area coverage).
Buy a new SIM card. For proper operation, you must ensure that your mobile phone is compatible with new technologies; you can find out in the specifications of the mobile phone or directly in the communications store when buying.
How to activate LTE on Android?Now let's see how to activate the network on an Android phone.
Please note that the instructions for different brands may have slight differences, however, the general algorithm of actions does not change:
Open Settings Android.
1.- Select the "Other networks" menu.
2.- Open "Mobile networks".
3.- Check the box next to "Mobile data".
4.- Open the line "Mode" and select the LTEm "WCDMA / GSM".
Note.- The disconnection is performed according to the same algorithm: you just need to select a different type of connection. Now you know what it is: an LTE network on a Samsung phone and any other Android.
How to activate LTE on iPhone?Consider connecting and disconnecting LTE technology on iPhone smartphones:
1.- Open "Settings" in the mobile menu.
2.- Go to the block "Cell phone"
3.- Select the line "Data options< /strong>".
4.- Click on the button "Enable< /strong>" and select "Voice and data".
Deactivation is done by analogy: click on the line "Turn off". We tell you what LTE Internet means on a tablet and a mobile phone, now you know how to turn the network on and off, what features it has and what needs to be done to make it work properly.
How to connect to the LTE network?
In some cases, it is necessary to replace the old SIM card with a new one if it is not compatible with new technologies. Also, if you plan to use high-speed Internet, it is better to connect to the Internet unlimLTEdly, since at such a high speed, the traffic is consumed very quickly, and most importantly, almost imperceptibly for the subscriber himself.
How does it transmit LTE information?As I said, this connection claims an input speed of 100 Mb/s in its rates. But, the actual speed is much lower. DespLTE this, LTE technology is far ahead of 3G. The basis of this connection is the transmission of MIMO information. In this case, OFDM encoding is applied.
As the manufacturers assure, mutual dependence is excluded. In each country, this connection has its own scope. If we take ours, in Russia, various telecom operators often have their own range. And we have the top 4. While the leaders are Megafon with Beeline, MTS and Tele 2 are trying to catch up.
Positive aspects of LTE technology?Now let's see the positive aspects that LTE and 4G technology brings.
If you have an LTE connection on your smartphone, these are:
1.- Possibility of applying video call connection.
2.- You can even create your own videoconferences.
3.- You can watch several videos, like YouTube, without freezing the frame.
4.- LTE can successfully distribute the Internet connection as a router using WiFi.
Generally, high Internet speed allows you to expand services and reduce Internet speed.
Differences between LTE and other standards
|Graph of the difference between LTE and standards|
The LTE icon on your phone also means a stable connection to web resources. Even if it does not exist and does not appear in the device documents, this does not mean that you cannot use this technology. After all, it is based on 3G principles and has been used by operators for more than two decades. LTE is already being used in many countries,
DespLTE the fact that the new standard belongs to the latest generation, it does not fully meet the requirements. In 2012, an improved version was developed - LTE Advanced, that is, advanced. And it was called the most perfect among those available today. A mobile network with LTE-A can be found much less often. After rigorous tests, the MCE (Telecommunication Union) recognized that it is the most suitable for the title of 4G
How to apply LTE 4G to your cell phone?You may not even know that your smartphone provides the Internet according to the latest technology. Many smartphones can receive data with a stronger connection. And still it is better that it is registered in the list of technologies supported by the device. In any case, you can go to the office of your mobile operator and ask for help to connect to the Internet with LTE.
Selecting an LTE network in the smartphone settings
You can also call support on your carrier's short number and ask for help with setup. On Android devices, the settings can be found in the "Networks" section. You must explicitly indicate the technology with which you prefer to use the Internet. Unfortunately, detailed instructions are not available. Because the device configuration may vary. You may need the help of an operator to prescribe the necessary settings for your device. In some cell phone models they are not evident.
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LTE networks and how they work?
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What are LTE networks and how does it work? .-
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