MAC address, how does it work?
?MAC address and how it works?
MAC address information?
How to know MAC address?
MAC address on Smartphone?
A MAC address is a unique combination of numbers and letters, 48 characters long. In fact, this is the hardware number of the equipment (computer, server, router, switch port, whatever), which, pay attention, is assigned to the device's network card at the factory, that is, at the moment of production.
MAC address and how it works?
The MAC address is a unique identifier that is assigned to any active network equipment at the factory. The MAC address is found on network cards of computers and laptops, routers, Wi-Fi modules of smartphones and tablets. In general, any computer that connects to the network has this address. From this article, you can find out what a MAC address is, as well as how to find out and change it on your computer.
This identifier consists of six bytes and is used to identify the recipient and sender of data packets. Using the MAC address allows you to pinpoint the computer that should receive each specific data packet and send this packet exactly where it should be.
Please note that a MAC address is not the same as an IP address. In order not to confuse these concepts, read about what an IP address is in our other article.
The MAC address is globally unique. No two devices have the same MAC address. This uniqueness is guaranteed by the fact that each network equipment manufacturer has its own block of addresses issued by the IEEE Registration Authority committee. And in the production of equipment, the manufacturer uses addresses only from his block. This division of addresses between manufacturers allows you to eliminate duplicate addresses and also allows you to determine the manufacturer of the equipment by the MAC address alone.
The MAC is essential for the proper functioning of the network. It is most often needed by users for the initial configuration of the router in the ISP network. Also, physical addresses can be used on LANs to assign a static IP address to a specific device on the LAN. So that? For example, to open an FTP server port for a specific device. Also, for example, switches are addressed by MAC addresses and not by IP
MAC address structureThe address consists of a manufacturer identifier part, OUI, and an identifier assigned by the manufacturer.
The IEEE assigns the Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) .
In fact, its length can be not only 3 bytes (24 bits), but 28 or 36 bits, from which blocks (MAC Address Block, MA) of addresses of the Large categories are extracted (MA-L), Medium (MA-M) and Small types (MA-S) are formed respectively.
The size of the issued block, in this case, will be 24, 20, 12 bits or 16 million, 1 million, 4 thousand addresses.
At the moment, about 38 thousand blocks have been distributed, which can be viewed by numerous online tools
MA blocks are not guaranteed for free, they can be purchased at a reasonable price (no subscription fee) for $3000, $1800 or $755 respectively. Interestingly, for additional money (per year) you can buy "hidden" public information about the allocated block. Now there are 232 of them, as seen above.
Types of MAC addressesThere are three types of addresses:
1.- Individual (unicast).- When you change the data to an individual poppy address, only one computer connected to the network receives this data. 30-9C-23-15-E8-8C
2.- Group (multicast.- the first bit of the high byte of the address is 1).- If we transfer data to a group poppy address, then this data is received by the computers that are part of the group. These computers must be configured to accept data on this multicast MAC address. To indicate that the MAC address is a group address, the first bit of the most significant byte is used, and this bit must be equal to one. 01-80-С2-00-00-08 The first bit means least significant, so 0 1.
3.- Broadcast (emission, all 1).- This is an address that consists of all bits. In hexadecimal it is written like this FF-FF-FF-FF-FF. When data is sent to that address, all computers on the network receive it.
MAC address informationThe MAC address starts with a small piece of hardware called a network interface card or network card. This is part of the circuitry that allows your device to connect to the network. The network card manufacturer provides each with a unique MAC address. Therefore, MAC addresses are sometimes also called hardware addresses.
The MAC address is an important part of how network devices communicate with each other. When connected to a WiFi router or directly to an Ethernet network in a building, the device will broadcast its MAC address to form a connection to the next device in the chain. The next device will have its own MAC address later in the chain, thus creating an Internet connection, and so on.
Network address of the computer.
Engraved address (BIA).
Ethernet Hardware Address (EHA)
MAC address popular providers:
3C:5A:B4 - Google, Inc.
3C:D9:2B - Hewlett Compatibility
00:9A:CD- HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD
And, in fact, the second 6 digits (right 6 digits) are unique and identify the NIC (Network Interface Controller). MAC addresses are often written in different ways: hyphens, colons, or periods.
00-50-B6-5B-CA-6A : the most common and familiar to everyone recording form.
00:50:B6:5B:CA:6A - notation used by parts of everything on Linux systems.
005.0B6.5BC.A6A- is the MAC address format used byCisco.
MAC addresses work with your device's card, allowing it to connect to the Internet through a network interface red wireless call controller (NIC). MAC addresses are used to determine which device is on your local network so that data is sent to your computer and not to your roommate's smartphone.
MAC addresses are always a 12-digit hexadecimal number, separated by a colon or dash every two digits. So, for example, the MAC address 2c549188c9e3 would show up as 2C:54:91:88:C9:E3 or 2c-54-91-88-c9-e3.
Major manufacturers of network adapters, such as Dell and Cisco, often encode their identifiers, called Unique Identifier organization (OUI), in the MAC addresses of the devices they manufacture. They are always the first six digits. Dell, for example, 00-14-22.
MAC address information?
How does a MAC address work?When data packets from the Internet arrive at your router, that router must be able to send them to the correct device on its network. It does this with MAC addresses, assigning a private IP address to each device connected to the network based on that device's MAC address. This is different from the IP address assigned to you by your Internet Service Provider (ISP): this is your public IP address.
Your router monitors outstanding data requests so that when the data comes back, it can attach the correct private IP address to the data packets and then forward them to any device that has a MAC address that matches that private IP address. >
Devices can have more than one MAC address because they get one for each location where they can connect to the Internet. For example, if your laptop has an Ethernet port and a Wi-Fi port, it will have different MAC addresses for the Wi-Fi connection and the Ethernet connection. Bluetooth also uses its own MAC address.
Does a MAC address make it vulnerable?.- Its MAC address is usually quite secure, but it can turn against you to monitor your location, disrupt Internet access, or even carry out attacks. All of these approaches are quite difficult to implement and there are simple ways to counter them.
Tracking people with MAC addresses.- Companies and institutions use MAC addresses to track the device location. As the device (and the person accompanying it) moves from one WiFi access point to another WiFi access point, it continues to transmit its MAC address to connect to new WiFi access points. In a large building (for example, an airport) or a city, a single WiFi system can be used to track the location of users and collect information about their movements. But this requires access to many WiFi hotspots, which are generally only available to large companies. Using MAC address snooping isn't always a bad thing either: in some parts of the world, they're just used to measure the speed and flow of traffic.
Interrupt or hijack a connection.- The hacker is trying to connect to the same WiFi router as you, using special software to discover its MAC address. If your router is not configured correctly, they can even impersonate you and intercept your credentials.
Some routers use MAC addresses to filter access and this is a powerful security strategy when combined with other methods. However, they themselves are quite susceptible to MAC address spoofing. All a hacker needs to impersonate you is your MAC address, which your device periodically transmits when searching for or establishing a connection.
But having a password protected and encrypted WiFi router will solve this problem. The hacker will still be able to determine and use your MAC address, but they won't be able to do anything until they get onto your network.
How to protect your MAC address? It is difficult to use effectively its MAC address to attack it. The MAC addresses of your devices are difficult to identify with your identity, they almost never go beyond the first network device they connect to, and they are rarely in a situation where a hacker can use them against you. However, it can still be a weak point. Also, some local networks, like your work or school, may use MAC address filtering to block certain online content.
Completely blocking your MAC address is not a good idea as without it you will not be able to connect to any other network devices or access the Internet. However, there are several different methods that you can use to stabilize for sure or in anon.
How are MAC addresses used? In addition to sending data to the right place, your wireless router also uses MAC addresses to secure your connection, only accepting traffic from devices with MAC addresses that it recognizes. This is called MAC filtering.
Technicians can also use MAC addresses to troubleshoot network connectivity issues. Since they are unique to each hardware device, it is best to determine which hardware connected to the network is sending and receiving data by looking at the MAC address. From there, you can see which device is having connectivity issues.
How can I find my MAC address? If you need to find your device's MAC address, you can usually do so by going to the settings menu. You can follow our guide to finding MAC addresses on your Windows device, either in the Settings app or at the command line.
It's also easy to find the MAC address on a Mac computer. In System Preferences, click the Network icon, select the interface you want to use, and then click Advanced. You will see the MAC address listed on the Hardware tab.
Many other devices, including smart TVs, game consoles, and smartphones, have their own MAC addresses that they can find.
change or "modify" your MAC address if you wish.
How to know MAC address?
Ways to find out the MAC address of your computer's network card.
With Windows command lineAlso, this information can be obtained in the properties of the network card.
To find out the MAC address using the command line, you must first run the CMD command. To do this, press the Win-R key combination to launch the Run window.
1.- Enter the command "CMD" and press the enter key.
2.- With the Windows command prompt open. Now you need to enter the command "GETMAC"
3.- You will receive the information you need.
MAC of a Windows computerHow to find the MAC address of a computer? Many Internet users are faced with this question. The need to find out the MAC address of the computer may arise when configuring the router or other actions related to the local network. In this article, we will see several ways that allow you to quickly find your computer's MAC address in Windows
1.- The easiest way to find out the MAC of a computer is to look at the network connection information. To do this, click the network connection icon on the taskbar and click the "Network and Sharing Center" link.
2.- You can also open the "Network and Sharing Center" and through the Panel control, for this you must click on the link "View the status and tasks of the network".
2.1.-After opening the "Network and Sharing Center" window, you need to click on the "Local Area Connection" link.
2.2.- In the window that opens, click on the "Details" button.
2.3.- After that, a window with information about this network connection will open in front of you.
Here you can find out the MAC of the computer, as well as the IP address and other information about the local network configuration.
With command line IPCONFIG /ALLIn addition to GETMAC, you can use the IPCONFIG /ALL command. Open a command prompt and enter the IPCONFIG /ALL command at it. After entering this command, you will see detailed information about all the connections on your computer.
To find out the MAC address, find the connection you need and look at the physical address. The physical address is your MAC address.
When using IPCONFIG /ALL, you should be careful, as this command displays information about all connections at once, each of which has its own MAC address. In order not to get confused, it is easier to focus on the name of the network card, it is indicated in the field "Description".
How to change the MAC address?
The need to change the MAC address of a computer can arise in different situations. But, in most cases, you need to connect to an Internet provider. Many providers use the MAC address to identify the customer, so after changing the network card or computer, you need to change the MAC address to connect to the Internet.
In this article, we will see two ways at once on how you can change the MAC address on a computer running Windows 10 operating system, and we will also tell you how to check for these changes.
Through the "Device Manager"Perhaps the easiest way to change a computer's MAC address in Windows 10 is to use Device Manager. In "Device Manager" you can open the properties of the network card and set any desired MAC address for it.
In Windows 10, you can open " Device Manager " in many ways. For example, you can right-click the Start button (or press the Win-X combination) and select the appropriate item in the window that opens.
Also in Windows 10, the " Device Manager " can be opened with the command "devmgmt.msc". In this case, you need to press the Win-R key combination, enter the specified command, and press the enter key.
One way or another, the "Device Manager" window will appear in front of you. Here you need to open the list of "Network adapters" and find the network card whose MAC address you want to change. For example, let's try to modify the poppy address of the Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller network card.
Please note that each network card has its own unique MAC address. Therefore, it is important not to confuse network cards and make changes for the card that requires it.
After that, right click on the desired network card and go to its properties.
In the properties of the network card, you need to go to the " Advanced " tab, use the properties list and find the item " Network address " (or " Network address "). This is the poppy address we need to change.
To change the MAC address, select the property " Network address " and in the field " Value " specify the new MAC address.
Please note that the MAC address is written in hexadecimal. Therefore, when specifying a new value, you can use numbers (0-9) and English letters (AF). For example, you can specify " AB12AB12AB12 ".
To save the settings, close all open windows by clicking the "OK" button and restart your computer. After the reboot, the network card you selected will receive a new MAC address.
Change MAC with the help of programsIn some cases (for example, for wireless Wi-Fi adapters), the way you specified to change the MAC address may not work in Windows 10. This is because the "Network Address" property is simply missing from the "Advanced" tab. "and the user cannot specify their own value and change the MAC address. In such cases, you can use specialized programs to change it.
One of the most popular programs to solve this problem is Technitium MAC Address Changer. The top part of this program's window displays a list of all network cards, their current MAC addresses, status, as well as connection speed and data transfer rate.
Thus, this tool is an essential tool for any computer security professional, since in a few steps you can configure a false MAC, circumventing the address imposed by the manufacturer and preventing your device from being identified on the network.
Download Technitium MAC Address Changer
To change the MAC address, you need to select a network card (for example, a wireless adapter), specify a new MAC address at the bottom of the window and click the "Change Now" button. You can also use the "Random MAC Address" button, which will automatically generate a random address and substitute it in the required field.
If you use the Technitium MAC Address Changer program, the changes are applied immediately and you do not need to restart your computer.
You can also use other similar programs to change MAC address on Windows 10 computer. SMAC MAC Address Changer or Win 7 MAC Address Changer
Checking for MAC changes1.- You can use the command getmac /v /fo list to search for a MAC address change on a computer with Windows 10. To do this, simply launch the command prompt and run the specified command. As a result, the command line displays a list of all network connections and their current MAC addresses (Physical Address). 2.- An alternative option is the command " msinfo32". In this case, you need to press the Win-R key combination and run the specified command.
After running this command, the System Information window will appear. Here you need to open the section "Components - Network - Adapter" and find the network card for which you changed the MAC address in the list.
If everything was done correctly, here in the line " MAC Address " the value of the new MAC address will be indicated.
MAC Address on Smartphone?
MAC address on Android?
Why might you need the MAC address of a device running on the Android operating system? For example, you want to use a MAC filter on your router so that only devices you approve can connect to it. Be that as it may, looking at the MAC address of the device is not a problem.
1.- Let's go to the configuration.
2.- Next, we scroll down to the end until we see the element "About the device strong>".
3.- On the page that opens, select the item "General Information" or "Status" and click on it.
4.- Here is the MAC address of the device.
This scheme works on all firmware. An important point. In some devices, the MAC address can change, not only when the device is rebooted, but also after each disconnection from the network (some models of smartphones, mostly from not more well-known Chinese manufacturers, have been noticed behind this).
MAC address on iPhone or iPad?When setting up a wireless network, you may need to find out the MAC address of your iPhone, iPad, or other mobile device. In one of the previous articles we already talked about MAC addresses on Android, but here we will talk about iOS. Here you will learn what the MAC address is for, as well as how to find out and change it on iPhone or iPad.
The MAC address, or physical address, is a unique six-byte address that is assigned to all active network devices at the time they are manufactured. Wifi. Therefore, mobile devices like iPhone or iPad also have that address.
The MAC address first appeared in the standards that describe Ethernet networks. During the development of these standards, it was envisioned that each active network device is given a unique address that will be written to the device's memory at the production stage. During device operation, this address is used to determine the sender and recipient of information, and due to the uniqueness of this address, connecting new devices will not cause conflicts.
To ensure the global uniqueness of MAC addresses, an organization called the IEEE Registration Authority was created. Manage MAC address space and submit them to network equipment manufacturers for later use in network devices.
Know MAC address on iPhone or iPadIf you have an iOS device, like an iPhone or iPad, and you need to find out the MAC address, you can do so through the Settings app. To do this, open the Settings app and go to the General section.
After that, you will see a screen with basic information about your device. For example, here you can find out music, videos, photos and programs stored on the device. There is also information about the total and available memory, the model and the serial number of the device.
At the bottom of the list are two MAC addresses, one of which is used when connecting to Wi-Fi and the other when connecting via Bluetooth. These MAC addresses can be copied. To do this, press and hold your finger until the pop-up menu "Copy".
Change the MAC address on iPhone or iPadAlthough the MAC address is "hardwired" into the device's memory at the production stage, it can be changed via software. This can be done even on an iPhone or iPad, but only if you have installed the jailbreak and the alternative Cydia app store.
To change the MAC address on an iPhone or iPad,
1.- Install the MobileTerminal application from the Cydia store.
2.- Execute the command "su". If the device requires a password, enter "alpine".
3.- Execute the command "ifconfig en0 lladdr 00:00:00:00:00:00", where "en0 " is the name of the network adapter and "00:00:00:00:00:00" is the new MAC address.
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?MAC address, how does it work?.-