With the development of digital technology, the presence of a person to sign a document is less and less required. Many procedures in the field of document management can be solved remotely using an electronic signature.
An electronic signature is a set of electronic data that accompanies or is associated with an electronic document, and that also identifies the signer unequivocally, they certify the integrity of the document and ensure that the signer cannot repudiate what has been signed.

What is an electronic signature like? How to impersonate a digital signature? DO NOT transfer digital certificate? Digital certificate dangers? My electronic signature in agency? .

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What is Electronic Signature?
How to obtain an electronic signature?
Electronic Signature Concepts?
Models Firms Electrical?
Uses of Electronic Signature ?
Electronic Signature Benefits?
Electronic Signature Details?
Electronic Signature Elements?
Electronic Signature Security?
How to sign a document?
Electronic Signature Risks?
Reliable Electronic Signatures?
Fraudulent Signature Schemes?
Digital Certificate Management?

Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature What is Electronic Signature?

The digital electronic signature is generated by the user through the private key and contains the cryptographic part, information about the author of the document and the document itself. An electronic signature is attached, it is created as a new file, in which, as in an envelope, a document is packaged. Extracting a document from this file can only be done by special means.


By applying a separate signature, a separate file is created and the document does not change. Consequently, it can be read without extraction by means. You can verify the authenticity and integrity of the document using the public key included in the key pair. According to the law, a qualified electronic signature is equivalent to a signature placed “by hand” and has full legal force.
The digital electronic signature is generated by the user through the private key and contains the cryptographic part, information about the author of the document and the document itself. An electronic signature is attached, it is created as a new file, in which, as in an envelope, a document is packed. Extracting a document from this file can only be done by special means. By applying a separate signature, a separate file is created and the document does not change.Consequently, it can be read without extraction by means. You can verify the authenticity and integrity of the document using the public key included in the key pair. irritated underarm solution


Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature How to Obtain Electronic Signature?

You must first generate a public key certificate.
This is a document (digital or paper) that confirms the compliance of the public key with information about its owner. Public key certificates are issued by specialized organizations (Certification Authorities). They become the guarantor of the exchange of electronic signatures between the parties in the correspondence.
The Certification Authority is a type of notary that certifies electronic documents.
The password will be recorded by the userand transferred to the Certification Authority to make a certificate. The creation of keys is possible directly at the Certification Authority.

The private key together with the certificate , are stored in files, placed on removable media ( Pendriver ) and protected with a PIN code. These measures exclude the use of the private key by an unauthorized person.

What does the phrase “an electronic signature issued to the customer” mean? By itself, a signature is not an issue, but the result of cryptographic transformations of the document being signed, and cannot be issued "physically"in any operator (token, smart card, certification centers.) . Nor can it be seen, in the literal sense of the word; it does not look like a pen stroke or a printed figure.irritated underarm solution

Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Electronic Signature Concepts?

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  1. The electronic signature is a special requirement of the document, which allows you to establish the absence of distortion of the information in an electronic document since the formation of the electronic signature and confirm that it belongs to the owner. The value of the accessories is obtained as a result of the cryptographic transformation of the information.

  2. Electronic signature certificate:a document confirming the ownership of the public key (verification key) of the electronic signature to the certificate holder. Certificates are issued by the certification authorities or their authorized representatives.

  3. The owner of a certificate is a natural person in whose name the electronic signature certificate is issued at the certification center. Each certificate holder has two keys to the electronic signature: closed and open .

  4. The public key of the electronic signature (the key to verify the electronic signature) is associated only with the private key of the electronic signature is intended for authentication.irritated underarm solution




Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Electronic Signature Models?

  1. SIMPLE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE is used to confirm the fact of the electronic signature by a normal citizen. For this, the codes and passwords are transferred to the document. This is the least reliable signature, suitable for signing documents that are not related to finance, for example, for web identification, electronic purchase registration, etc.
    An electronic document signed with a simple unqualified electronic signature is considered equivalent to a paper document signed with a handwritten signature.
  2. UNIMPROVED ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE more reliable than simple electronic signature. To obtain it, you will have to follow a more complicated way of encrypting digital information. The signature is generated by cryptographic conversion using a key; this will require special software. It not only helps to identify the signer, but also provides information on whether modifications were made to the digital document after the EDS was signed for the individual entrepreneur.
    The unqualified electronic signatureit is obtained as a result of the cryptographic transformation of the information using the private key of the signature. This electronic signature allows you to identify the person who signed the electronic document and detect the fact of making changes after signing electronic documents.
    An electronic document signed with an unqualified enhanced electronic signature is considered equivalent to a paper document signed with a handwritten signature.

  3. < class="Estilo5">IMPROVED QUALIFIED ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE its legality is necessarily confirmed by an accredited center. This means that cryptographic media was used for encryption. The fact of the certification of a qualified electronic signature for an individual entrepreneur is confirmed by a corresponding certificate. This EDS for Tax IP is simply necessary: ​​with your help, reports and other important documents are signed.
    The enhanced qualified electronic signature corresponds to all the signs of a non-qualified electronic signature, but to create and verify the electronic signature, certified cryptographic protection tools are used. In addition, qualified electronic signature certificates are issued only by accredited certification authorities.
    The enhanced qualified Electronic Signature on an electronic document is analogous to a handwritten signature and a stamp on a paper document. The legal force of only those is recognized. documents that are signed by a qualified electronic signature.
    The reinforced qualified electronic signature solves a wide range of tasks. With it, you can send reports to tax authorities, exchange electronic documents with counterparties, and more.

    In practice, there are situations where the use of a certificate depends on the party receiving the document. For example, some electronic document operators accept certificates issued only by their certification authority. It is always important to ensure that there are no restrictions on the use of your certificate in one or the other information system.
    In August 2014 the European Parliament approved a new regulatory framework for the identification and trust services of electronic transactions in the internal market: Regulation (EU) No. 910/2014 , which finally came fully into force on July 1, 2016 .irritated underarm solution



Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Uses Electronic Signature?

  1. Electronic document management. Electronic signature technology is widely used in electronic document management systems for various purposes: external and internal exchange, organizational and administrative, personal, legislative, commercial and industrial, and others. This is dictated by the primary property of the electronic signature: it can be used as an analogue of a handwritten signature and / or print on a paper document.

  2. In an internal document, the management of the electronic signature is used as a means of approval and approval of electronic documents in the framework of internal processes. For example, during contract negotiation, the director signs it with an ES, which means that the contract is approved and can be transferred to execution.

  3. Creating an inter-corporate workflow , the presence of an electronic signature is a crucial condition for the exchange, as it is a guarantor of legal force. Only in this case, the electronic document can be recognized as authentic and used as evidence in legal proceedings. A signed document with enhanced electronic signature can also be stored for a long time in a digital file, while maintaining its legitimacy.
Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature When purchasing a certificate , you must clearly understand where it will be used, as the price of the certificate depends firstly on the number of functions it can perform and secondly on making sure that the certificate is suitable to achieve your goals . Generally, the purpose of using an electronic signature is specified when requesting a certificate.

IMPROVEMENTS.-Fast delivery of documents: ten times less than the delivery time of paper documents. Reduction of costs associated with the preparation and subsequent transfer of electronic documents between counterparties: the preparation and transfer of legally relevant documents in electronic form at a lower cost than the transfer of paper documents. Economic benefits electronic signature : The rapid exchange of documents allows to accelerate the business processes of companies (for example, when concluding and archiving transactions), which in turn increases the turnover rate of the funds, that is, it allows you to earn more in the same time period. Reduced cost of preparation and transfersirritated underarm solution

  • The rapid exchange of electronic documents and the guarantee of their delivery allow for the timely submission of reports to the tax authorities and the deduction of VAT, which also allows you to keep cash in circulation.

  • The electronic form of documents makes document processing easier and allows you to automate them significantly, which has a positive effect on the overall speed of document processing.

  • These advantages are for companies with a large amount of external workflow. For the exchange between companies, in accordance with current legislation, for example, you can use the following types of documents:
    Legal Letters; Contracts; Accounts and balances; Issued invoices; Information Travel guides; Minutes of work performed and provision of services; Settlement reconciliation acts. irritated underarm solution

  • Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Electronic Signature Details?



  • The validity period of an electronic signature certificate is one year and, for example, accounting documents, it is necessary to store five years. But even after the expiration of the certificate, the document will not lose legal force, since at the time of signing a time stamp is placed.

  • Put the date on the document being signed. Confirm that the electronic signature certificate was valid at the time of signing the document. Therefore, when signing the document, the timestamp and the result of the certificate verification are sealed. To confirm the fact that the certificate was valid at the time of signing, you can also consult the list of revoked certificates on the website of the certification center.

  • It is important to comply with the technical requirements for sending documents: black and white image, .PDF format, at least 200 dpi, the presence of a graphic signature of the person responsible, printing and other details. A document: a file, the title of which reflects the content and the number of pages.

  • Documents such as a statement on the guarantee of a claim, on the guarantee of property interests, a petition to suspend the execution of judicial acts are not accepted in electronic format. irritated underarm solution

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Electronic Signature Elements?

    1. Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Electronic signature means , a technical tool necessary to implement a set of cryptographic algorithms and functions. It can be a cryptographic provider installed on a computer (CryptoPro Pro CSP, ViPNet CSP) or a separate token with a built-in crypto provider (Rutoken with Electronic Signature, JaCarta GOST) or an “electronic cloud”.
      A cryptographic service provider is an independent module that acts as an "intermediary" between the operating system, which controls it through a certain set of functions and a complex of programs or hardware that performs cryptographic transformations.

    2. Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature A Key Pair, consisting of two sets of impersonal bytes, formed by the electronic signature tool. The first of these is the key of the electronic signature, which is called "closed" . It is used to form the signature and must be kept secret. Placing the "private" key on a computer and Pendriver is extremely insecure, in a token - partially insecure, in a token / smart-card / sim-card in a non-removable form - the most secure. The second is the key to verify the electronic signature, which is called "open". It is not confidential, it is linked only to the "private" key and is necessary for anyone to verify the accuracy of the electronic signature.

    3. Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature The Certificate of the verification key with Electronic Signature,issued by a certification authority. Its purpose is to associate an impersonal set of bytes of the "public" key with the identity of the owner of the electronic signature (person or organization). In practice, it looks like this: For example, an individual comes to the certification center, presents a passport, and certification authorities issue her a certificate confirming that it is the "open" key. This is necessary to avoid a fraudulent scheme, during deployment of which an attacker, in the process of transmitting an "open" code, can intercept it and replace it with his own. In this way, the offender may impersonate a signatory. In the future, intercepting messages and making changes, you can confirm them with your Electronic Signature.

    The phrase "an electronic signature has been issued to the customer" consists of three components:

  • The customer has purchased an electronic signature tool.
  • He received an "open" and "closed" key, with the help of which it is generated and verified with Electronic Signature.
  • The CA issued a certificate to the client confirming that the "public" key of the key pair belongs to this person. irritated underarm solution

  • Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Electronic Signature Security.?

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    Have a certificate In order to be able to carry out an electronic signature, previously, it will be necessary to have a digital certificate such as those of the FNMT (National Currency and Stamp Factory or the electronic DNI, which is authentic —through a key pair in a software file or in card— the identity (as a natural or legal person) of the signatory. These certificates are issued by a certification authority that certifies that the bearer of the certificate is who he claims to be.
    The question of security Required properties of the documents that are sign: integrity; authenticity authenticity (authenticity; "irrefutable"of the authorship of the information). They are provided by cryptographic algorithms and protocols, as well as software and hardware-software solutions based on them to generate electronic signatures. With a certain degree of simplification, we can say that the security of electronic signatures and the services provided at its base is based on the fact that the "private" keys of the electronic signature are kept secret, protected and that each user stores them. responsibly and avoid incidents. Note: when buying a token, it is important to change the factory password, so that no one can access the mechanism with Electronic Signature, except its owner

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature How do you protect IP from electronic signatures?


    With the development of technology and its immediate implementation, it may happen that in the search for speed of development, protection against fraud is lost. Some certification centers have begun to practice issuing an electronic signature certificate for IP .

    When an electronic digital signature request is processed, it arrives at said center via the Internet, certified by a third-party digital signature. Similarly, an already generated password and an electronic signature certificate can be transmitted. In this case, the risks of fraudulent schemes are very high.
    They allow the signature to be uniquely identified, as established in the law that regulates electronic signatures in theEuropean Union: Regulation (EU) No. 910/2014, known as eIDASit is your transfer to a third party to certify the transaction, prepare documentation, transfer tax reports, use a client bank. Most employers who trust the signing rights of accountants and lawyersirritated underarm solution

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature How to sign a document?

     
    To sign a file with Electronic Signature. you must follow some steps. As an example, we will consider how to place a qualified electronic signature on a certificate for a registered trademark of the Unique Portal of an Electronic Signature in .pdf format.
    1. Right-click on the document and select the encryption provider and the "Sign" column .

    2. Complete the sections of the cryptographic provider dialog.

    3. Select the "Next" button.

    4. In this step, if necessary, you can select another file to sign or skip this step and go directly to the next dialog box.

    5. The "Coding and Extension" fields do not require editing. You can then choose where the signed file will be saved. In the example, a document with an Electronic Signature. will be placed on the desktop.

    6. In the "Signature Properties" block , select "Signed", if necessary you can add a comment. The remaining fields can be excluded / selected at will.

    7. From the certificate store, select the desired one.

    8. After verifying the validity of the Certificate Holder field, click the Next button.

    9. In the dialog, the final verification of the data necessary to create an electronic signature is carried out, and then, after clicking the "Done" button, the following message will appear:

    Successful completion of the operation means that the file has been cryptographically converted and contains elements that fix the immutability of the document after signing and ensure its legal importance.

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature How to use the Electronic Signature. (c) PAE Electronic Administration Portal.

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Complete information Electronic Signature. (c) PAE Electronic Administration Portal.irritated underarm solution


    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Risks Electronic Signature.?

    The digital economy not only offers participants new opportunities, but also creates new risks. The eternal rule "prevented means armed" is more relevant here than ever. An electronic signature is a tool with the maximum "armor" against compromise. Of course, subject to its correct use by the owner and the prevention of the attacker to critical points. But even this does not prevent criminals from finding loopholes and using the notorious human factor, making it illegal.

    Variants of fraud with electronic signature:
    1. Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Delitos físicos: el contacto del delincuente con el transportista es necesario para el despliegue del esquema fraudulento.
      1.1. El robo del transportista es tan simple como 5 kopeks, el esquema, cuando el delincuente roba un token USB, lo que le permite usar libremente la firma electrónica de otra persona

      Como Neutralizar el robo de datos: establecer una contraseña de usuario - recuerde que los medios se emiten con contraseñas estándar de fábrica que están disponibles gratuitamente en Internet y, en consecuencia, es importante reemplazarlos con una combinación numérica conocida solo por el propietario. Después de 3 intentos del atacante para recoger la contraseña, se bloqueará el token USB.

      1.2. Transferencia voluntaria de su contraseña a otra persona - basada en una confianza ilimitada, y muy probablemente debido a un malentendido de las posibles consecuencias, en lugar de delegar el derecho a realizar ciertas acciones, las personas autorizadas transfieren su firma electrónica a los subordinados. Los casos en los que los principales contadores han llevado a las empresas al borde de la bancarrota, retirando capital con la ayuda de directores de ES, todavía ocurren con una envidiable regularidad. El esquema fraudulento se puede desplegar simultáneamente y posponer. Simultáneamente, un atacante puede usar una firma electrónica directamente mientras alberga el token USB de otra persona. Retrasado: en caso de que la clave privada del ES sea recuperable, el delincuente puede copiarla y usarla más tarde, después de la devolución del operador al propietario.

      Neutralización de firma duplicada: - nunca, nunca y bajo ninguna circunstancia, transfiera su firma electrónica - probablemente la regla más simple, que, desafortunadamente, a menudo se descuida. Normalmente, la excusa es el deseo de ahorrar dinero en la cantidad del costo de la ES y el tiempo requerido para el registro del poder notarial. Pero no debemos olvidar lo pequeños que son estos valores en comparación con los riesgos. Nota: en la sección "Artículos" hay disponible un material separado sobre la inadmisibilidad de transferir una firma electrónica a otros.

      1.3. La presencia en el token de capacidades no declaradas ("marcadores"): la obtención de portadores de claves no certificadas de fuentes no confiables conlleva la presencia en el software de las inclusiones que no se indican en la documentación. A través de estos agujeros de gusano, los delincuentes pueden robar la clave privada de la firma electrónica.

      Neutralización del Software: - adquisición de operadores certificados por FSTEC: puede verificar que no haya "marcadores" utilizando el escaneo de rayos X del token USB, que se realiza en los laboratorios del Servicio Federal para el Control Técnico y de Exportaciones. Si el estudio no reveló ninguna "pestaña", entonces el operador clave se considera seguro y el certificado FSTEC se expide para ello

    2. Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signatureTechnological crimes: For the implementation of such illegal schemes of scammers, skills in the field of IT technologies and information security are required in the first place.

      2.1. The intrusion of an intruder into the "computer" of the owner of an electronic signature:A scammer who gains access to the victim's computer or laptop can steal a key by copying it, if it is recoverable, or use an EA without the owner's knowledge. For example, a spyware program (Remote Access Tool or abbreviated as RAT, in the jargon of some "rat" IT specialists) can intercept the parameters of function calls, data exchanged between applications, certification centers. Consequently, it will allow the offender to discover the token password and gain access to the electronic signature stored in it.

      Theft neutralization: - compliance with information hygiene rules - do not follow suspicious links(note that the letter may contain the address of a trusted site, but when you hover over it, a completely different hyperlink address may appear) , don't download programs and files from untrusted sources, don't use potentially infected flash drives, install an antivirus program on your computer or laptop and so on. In addition, it is worth mentioning the importance of the correct operation of the information administration and security service in companies

      2.2. Commitment of the communication channel "token-machine":if an attacker enters the usb-token's data transmission channel to a computer or laptop, then it threatens, depending on the type of key operator, and the password is compromised and the key is compromised.

      Neutralization of theft in the channel:- compliance with information hygiene regulations + FKN - a way to avoid the implementation of said scheme, similar to the previous one. As an additional means to protect the commitment of the electronic signature, we can mention the functional key bearer (PCF). PCF is different in that it shares calculations during the generation of an electronic signature between the user's application and the token in such a way that the data transmitted through the communication channel will not allow the criminal to draw conclusions about the key or password

    3. Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Social crimes are fraudulent schemes based on the personal qualities of people, their ability to imitate others, deceive, falsify documents. Such violations are mostly difficult to prevent, but all current and potential SE owners should know that the market has found a way to deal with such crimes

      3.1. Obtaining an electronic signature by another person: a criminal can take possession of the documents of the correct person (search, steal) and, using the most similar accomplice to him, obtain an electronic digital signature.

      Neutralization of document theft:- Responsible attitude towards documents: it is necessary to store documents in safe places and, in case of theft, immediately inform the police authorities. The presence of a declaration of loss or theft will be an additional argument in the case of a trial for the illegal release of an ES and the taking of significant actions with it. Evidence that the injured person did not complete an application to obtain an electronic signature will be a graphological examination of the signature.

      3.2. Obtaining an electronic signature on forged documents and powers of attorney:Electronic signature market rules involve mandatory personal assistance upon initial receipt of an electronic signature, and upon repeated release, may be collected by providing copies of necessary documents and power of attorney. This can take advantage of scammers, counterfeit paper

      3.3. The dishonesty of the employees of the certification centers, as in any system, whether to enforce the law, judicial or any other, its ordinary users depend on those who are empowered. Here is the most negative human factor: the helplessness of a criminal who is "inside". With such insights, any system goes out of balance, and one of the most reliable and easily restored to normal is the electronic signature system.

      Neutralization schemes 3.2. and 3.3 .: - the responsible performance of their functions by the staff of Certification Centers, in these cases, prevention is only possible within certification centers with the help of the coordinated work of managers who produce ES, security services. of information, recruitment of staff and colleaguesof a potential intruder, which is occurring in the modern ES market. But this still does not exclude the human factor by 100%. irritated underarm solution




    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Are Electronic Firms Reliable?

    It is impossible to decipher the electronic signature and the key: the improved cryptographic protection mechanism is multilevel and too complex. The only threat that awaits you is the physical loss of a secret key or password. In fairness, we remember that bank card owners are not safe from this, yet few people reject the services of financial institutions for this reason.

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    1. First , because the certification centers, due to their financial responsibility, are extremely vigilant in verifying the documents of the applicants, thus minimizing the risks of fraud in electronic signatures.

    2. Second place,There is an external system to monitor the activities of the certification centers, built by government agencies. To start operations, certification centers must receive a license from the Federal Service that will confirm their compliance with the strict requirements of the service. If certification centers plan to issue a qualified electronic signature, they must also be accredited by the Ministry of Communications. The ACs that are interested in the efficiency of the ES issued in the entire information space of the country are also in the process of authorization in the Association of Electronic Commerce Platforms. In addition to these launch procedures, the FSB, the Ministry of Communications and the AETP carry out annual audits of the certification centers

    3. Third, the high quality of certification center staff, for example, to obtain an FSB license, there must be specialists with specialized higher education or graduates of additional 500-hour training courses. The selection of employees of the certification centers is strict, specialization in the respective type of activity is required and wages are competitive. All this is also a limiting factor, because the decision to put everything at stake for a single criminal enrichment, which in any case will be revealed, does not correspond at all to the psychological portrait of a high-class specialist.
    We recommend having a reliable place to store your electronic signature key and it can be a computer hard drive or a normal flash drive. For this purpose, specialized software and hardware stores, such as e-Token and Rutoken, are ideal. Such USB sticks or smart cards differ from common "flash drives" in that access tothey are only possible using a PIN code. After three incorrect entries, the key fob or card is blocked. All operations are carried out in the memory of the disk, which completely eliminates the interception.irritated underarm solution

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Fraudulent schemes?

    We're going to add a few words about non-existent schemes that may scare newcomers from the world of electronic signatures.
    1. ES can be copied from a signed electronic document. No they can `t.

    2. The conspiracy theory of certification centers that use electronic signatures of their clients. Comment from the editors of the portal iEcp.ru: the argument has already been given above why this is not so

    3. An ES private key can be collected using a public one, allowing scammers to use a signature

    REMEMBER .- the key length is 256 bits and in fact the private key can be declassified using the public key selection method, but the power of modern computing equipment includingsupercomputers will not allow this to be done before the end of EA's validity period. Comfortable to work with electronic signature. irritated underarm solution

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature How to manage Digital Certificates?


    An electronic signature certificate is valid for one year, but in some situations it must be reissued earlier than scheduled for security reasons. Contact the certification center if: 1.- The certificate holder's data has changed 2.- The means with the signature's private key have been damaged or lost 3.- There were problems with the electronic signature 4.- Have reasons to believe that the electronic signature key was compromised. In the management of the Electronic Signature certificate, we wonder? Can I give my digital certificate to my agency? Does my manager ask me for the digital certificate? Can I give my digital certificate to my manager?

    Electronic signature risks, avoid fraud of your electronic signature Does the agency ask me for a digital certificate?

    It is more convenient for our managers to have a copy of the electronic certificate directly installed in their browser. And already put, because we also have it in the office team, in the home team or it has been taken by the accounting manager to be able to do some work from her own home. It is most comfortable, but if we are sensible and think carefully, we would not do the same with our ID and our signature.

    The result is that many times we have to revoke the certificate because someone who had it installed at home has left the company and we are simply not sure if it was installed or not. The same if we change manager,
    how do we know that it does not have a copy?
    In these cases it is best to always have the certificate on a cryptographic card. Is the answer NO at the agency?irritated underarm solution

    electronic signature risk protection SCAMS AND SCAMS?




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